माजरीन कृत्रिम मख्खन को आप कह सकते हैं यह पशु या वनस्पति से बना मख्खन जैसा खाद्य पदार्थ है। और कृत्रिम ट्रांस फेट के एक उदाहरण के रूप में आप इसे ले सकते हैं।
कृत्रिम ट्रांसफैट कैसे तैयार किये जाते हैं ?
(खाद्य )तेलों (liquid oils )की भंडारण अवधि बढ़ाने के लिए इन से तैयार खाद्यों का स्वाद बढ़ाने के लिए इन्हें ठोस चिकनाई (solid fats ) में तबदील कर दिया जाता है। इस प्रक्रिया को तेलों का हाड्रोजनीकरण कहा जाता है। ऐसा करने से तेलों की ठोस रूप में भंडारण अवधि बढ़ जाती है। इनसे तैयार खाद्य जल्दी सड़ते नहीं हैं। सुस्वादु भी बने रहते हैं।
इन्हें खाद्य संरक्षी भी कहा जाता है। अमरीकी खाद्य एवं दवा निगरानी संस्था FDA ने इन्हें खाद्य श्रृंखला से बे -दखल करने की मुहिम छेड़ दी है। इनकी कोई सुरक्षित सीमा (न्यूनतम सुरक्षित समझे जानी वाली मात्रा )नहीं है। फिलवक्त अमरीकी समाज औसतन एक दिन में एक ग्राम ट्रांस फेट का सेवन कर रहा है। संस्था के अनुसार इस मात्रा को और भी कम कर देने से हर साल अमरीका भर में २० ,००० दिल के दौरों और परिहृदय धमनी रोग (CAD -coronary artery diseases )के ७ ,००० नए मामलों से देश को बचाये रखा जा सकता है।
CSPI अमरीकी संस्था सेंटर फॉर साइंस इन पब्लिक इंटेरेस्ट के अनुसार अभी भी ट्रासंफेट अमरीकी खुराक में अपनी जगह बनाये हुए हैं। भले कई खादय निगमों ने पहल करके इसकी मात्रा को कम ज़रूर किया है।
5 TRANS FATS CULPRITS
(1) Burger king whooper contain 1 gm trans fat per serving .
(2)Long John Silver Breaded Clam Strips contain 7 gm per serving
(3)Popeye's Breakfast Hashbrowns contain 10 gm per serving .
(4)Pop Secret Premium Butter Popcorn contain 5 gm per serving .
(5)Jolly Time Blast o Butter Popcorn contian 4 gm per serving .
Among frozen desserts one slice of Sara Lee Claasic New York style cheese cake contains 3gm per serving .
(6)Peanut Butter Creme Pie contain 4 gm per serving .
Keebler Ready Crust Mini Graham Cracker Pie Crust contain 2gm per serving .
Betty Crocker Pie Crust Mix contain 2.5 gm per serving .
Many stick brands of margarin contain atleast 1.5 gm per serving.
Walmart's Great Value Stick Margarine contain 3gm per serving .
अलबत्ता खाद्य निगम लॉन्ग जान सिल्वरस ने अगस्त माह में वायदा किया था -आइंदा उनके यहाँ इस्तेमाल तेल में ट्रांस फेट को जगह नहीं दी जायेगी। बरजर किंग ऐसा २००८ से कर रहा है ऐसा इस निगम का दावा है। बेशक कुछ मात्रा ट्रांस फेट की कुदरती तौर पर गोस्त और दूग्ध उत्पादों में चली आरही है।
आम तौर पर मीठी चीज़ों (डेज़र्ट्स ),माइक्रोवेव पोपकोर्न उत्पादों ,फ्रोज़न पिज़ा (बर्फ के क्रिस्टलों से ढका हुआ बासा पिज़ा जिसे फ्रीज़र में रखा जाता है ट्रांस फेट युक्त मशहूर खाद्य हैं।
Put down that doughnut: FDA takes on
(CNN) -- So long, margarine: Artificial trans fat in foods may eventually become a thing of the past.
The Food and Drug Administration on Thursday took a first step toward potentially eliminating most
trans fat from the food supply, saying it has made a preliminary determination that a major source of
trans fats -- partially hydrogenated oils -- is no longer "generally recognized as safe."
If the preliminary determination is finalized, according to the FDA, then partially hydrogenated oils will
become food additives that could not be used in food without approval. Foods with unapproved
additives cannot legally be sold.
Trans fat can be found in processed foods including desserts, microwave popcorn products, frozen pizza,
margarine and coffee creamer, and has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease.
Partially hydrogenated oil is formed when hydrogen is added to liquid oils to make solid fats, like
shortening and margarine. It increases the shelf life and the flavor of foods. Partially hydrogenated
vegetable oil, or shortening, was used in American kitchens as early as 1911.
However, in recent years many food manufacturers have taken steps to limit or eliminate trans fat from
McDonald's, for instance, stopped cooking its french fries in trans fat more than a decade ago. The
company's website says all its fried menu items are free of trans fat.
New York City in 2007 adopted a regulation banning partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and spreads
Mayor Michael Bloomberg said Thursday that he was encouraged by the FDA's move.
"The groundbreaking public health policies we have adopted here in New York City have become a
model for the nation for one reason: They've worked. Today, New Yorkers' life expectancy is far higher
than the national average, and we've achieved dramatic reductions in disease, including heart disease.
The FDA deserves great credit for taking this step, which will help Americans live longer, healthier
lives," Bloomberg said.
Trans fat intake among American consumers decreased from 4.6 grams per day in 2003 to about a
gram a day in 2012, according to the FDA.
However, "current intake remains a significant public health concern," FDA Commissioner Margaret
Hamburg said in a written statement.
There is no safe level of consumption of trans fat, Hamburg said. It has been shown to raise the "bad,"
or LDL, cholesterol.
"Through our efforts at product reformulation and the development of suitable alternatives, trans fats
that are not naturally occurring have been drastically reduced in the food supply," the Grocery
Manufacturers Association, which represents more than 300 food, beverage and consumer product
companies, said in a prepared statement.
"Since 2005, food manufacturers have voluntarily lowered the amounts of trans fats in their food
products by over 73%."
Other countries are also working to reduce trans fat in the food supply. Policies in Brazil, Costa Rica,
Denmark, the Netherlands, South Korea and the United States have proved effective over the past two
decades, the World Health Organization said in April. The WHO has called for eliminating trans fat from
the global food supply.
The FDA has opened a 60-day comment period on the determination "to collect additional data and to
gain input on the time potentially needed for food manufacturers to reformulate products that currently
contain artificial trans fat should this determination be finalized," the agency said.
There are two phases to the process, FDA officials said Thursday. The agency will evaluate the
comments and evidence received during the comment period.
"If we finalize our conclusion, then we are inviting comments from industry on what would be an
appropriate phaseout," said Michael Taylor, the agency's deputy commissioner for foods.
"The timeline would be based on the comments we get. Given the public health impact, we want to move
as quickly as we can."
The National Restaurant Association noted in a statement the industry's "tremendous strides" in
reducing or eliminating trans fats.
"We plan to discuss the impact of this proposal on the industry and submit comments, and we will
continue to work with our members and the manufacturing supply chain to address any new federal
standards that may arise out of this process," said Joan McGlockton, the association's vice president of
industry affairs and food policy.
Hamburg called Thursday's move "an important step toward protecting more Americans from the
potential dangers of trans fat."
The American Heart Association, the American Medical Association and the Center for Science in the
Public Interest were among those praising the move.
"The scientific evidence is clear -- eating food with trans fat increases production of 'bad' cholesterol,
which is a risk factor for heart disease," the AHA said.
So what should consumers do in the meantime? Choose products that have the lowest combined
amount of saturated fat, cholesterol and trans fat, the FDA said.
Under current regulations, companies can claim their food has 0 grams of trans fat if the food contains
less than 0.5 grams of trans fat per serving, according to Mical Honigfort, a consumer safety officer at
the FDA. But if partially hydrogenated oil is listed in the ingredients, there may still be a small amount of
trans fat present.
Nancy Brown, the Heart Association's CEO, said she hopes the FDA goes a step further and revises
labels for foods that are trans fat free.
The preliminary determination was based on "available scientific evidence and the findings of expert
scientific panels," the FDA said.
The determination covers only partially hydrogenated oils, not trans fat that naturally occurs in some
meat and dairy products. Trans fat is also present at very low levels in other edible oils, such as fully
hydrogenated oils, where it is "unavoidably produced during the manufacturing process," according to
Avoiding foods containing artificially produced trans fat could prevent 10,000 to 20,000 heart attacks
and 3,000 to 7,000 coronary heart disease deaths each year, according to one study from the U.S.
"Artificial trans fat is a uniquely powerful promoter of heart disease, and today's announcement will
hasten its eventual disappearance from the food supply," said Michael Jacobson, the Center for
Science in the Public Interest's executive director. "Not only is artificial trans fat not safe, it's not
remotely necessary. Many companies, large and small, have switched to healthier oils over the past
decade. I hope that those restaurants and food manufacturers that still use this harmful ingredient see
the writing on the wall and promptly replace it."