बुधवार, 19 फ़रवरी 2014

सेहतनामा

सेहतनामा 

(१)साइंसदानों ने पता लगाया है मोटापे की मार को कम करने में ब्ल्यूबेरीज कारगर सिद्ध होतीं हैं। क्योंकि इसके नियमित सेवन से वसा कोशाओं (Fat cells )का विकास कमतर हो जाता है। 

(२) गहरे रंग की पत्तेदार सब्ज़ियाँ मसलन पालक का खूब सेवन करने से डायबिटीज़ का जोखिम कम हो जाता है। 

(३)ACTION GAMES HELP DYSLEXIC PEOPLE TO READ 

A new study found that action video games improve literacy skills among those with dyslexia .The researchers said that dyslexics might learn associations between letters and their sounds faster if they first hear the sound then see the coresponding letter or word .

Dyslexia :


Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterised by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary problems may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.

Dyslexia is sometimes referred to as a:

  • Learning disability
  • Specific learning difficulty
  • Reading disorder
  • Reading disability


(४ ) Oats ,Oat bran ,and oatmeal contain a specific type 


of fibre known as beta-glucon ,which has beneficial 


effects on cholesterol levels.



जई  में मौज़ूद एक बहुत ख़ास रेशा खून में घुली चर्बी कम करता है। 



(५) आलू विटामिन -B6 का एक हम स्रोत हैं अलावा इसके इनमें मौज़ूद 


रहता है पोटेशियम ,कॉपर ,विटामिन C ,फॉस्फोरस ,नियासिन तथा 



pantothenic acid .




(६) खून की कमी बोले तो एनीमिया दूर करने का देसी तरीका :


(१)टमाटर ,गाज़र और चुकंदर को बराबर मात्रा में लें। इसका जूस 


बनाकर (कमसे कम एक ग्लास )रोज़ाना पियें ,चाहें तो थोड़ा पालक 


पत्ता 


,हरा धनिया मिला लें ,निम्बू नमक काली मिर्च भी स्वाद के अनुसार। 


(२) दो मुठ्ठी भुने हुए चने (७५ ग्राम करीब करीब )तथा आधा मुठ्ठी गुड़ 


नियमित लें। चाहे तो नाश्ते में ही ले लें। 



(३)४ खजूर एक ग्लास दूध के साथ सुबह नाश्ते में लें। 



(7) To treat a cough ,boil a few corns of pepper with 


water for 20 minutes ,mix a little cumin and jaggery ,and 


drink .



(8) Studies have shown that flirting could boost your 


immunity ,so don't let your charms loose only on 


Valentine's 



(९)बचाये रह सकता है आघात (brain attack ,cerebrovascular 


accident ) से विटामिन C का नियमित सेवन। एक अध्ययन से ऐसे 


ही संकेत मिले हैं। पता चला है कि जिन लोगों को मष्तिष्क आघात 



खासकर hemorrhagic stroke से जूझना पड़ा था उनमें विटामिन C 


का स्तर न के बराबर था। जबकि जिन लोगों का आघात से सामना नहीं हुआ था उनमें इस विटामिनका स्तर

सामान्य स्तर पर  मिला था।


(10)PILL KEEPS SLIM ,WARDS OFF OLD AGE 

The pill ,based on the discovery of a hormone released after exercise ,called Irisin ,can reprogramme fat cells to burn energy instead of storing it .Irisin is naturally present in the body and it helps increase the metabolic rate (rate of burning calories ),that in turn cuts obesity .

(११ )क्योंकि ग्रीन चाय में कैफीन पर्याप्त मात्रा में रहता है इसलिए इसका सेवन सुबह सवेरे या फिर बाद दोपहर करना बेहतर रहता है रात में किये गए सेवन की वनिस्पत। 

(१२ )हमारे शरीर को थोड़ा सा संतृप्त वसा और कोलेस्ट्रॉल भी चाहिए ताकि हारमोन न सिर्फ बनते रहें इनमें संतुलन भी बना रहे। ज़ीरो फैट प्रोडक्ट्स  के झांसे में न आयें। 





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(10 )WHAT IS ANEMIA?

Anemia is a condition in which you don't have enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your tissues. Having anemia may make you feel exhausted.


There are many forms of anemia, each with its own cause. Loss of blood is the most common cause of anemia. Anemia can be temporary or long term, and it can range from mild to severe.
See your doctor if you suspect you have anemia because anemia can be a sign of serious illnesses. Treatments for anemia range from taking supplements to undergoing medical procedures. You may be able to prevent some types of anemia by eating a healthy, varied diet.

Symptoms


Anemia symptoms vary depending on the cause of your anemia but may include:
  • Fatigue
  • Pale skin
  • A fast or irregular heartbeat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Dizziness
  • Cognitive problems
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Headache
Initially, anemia can be so mild it goes unnoticed. But symptoms increase as anemia worsens.

When to see a doctor

Make an appointment with your doctor if you're feeling fatigued for unexplained reasons. Some anemias, such as iron deficiency anemia, are common. Fatigue has many causes besides anemia, so don't assume that if you're tired you must be anemic.
Some people learn that their hemoglobin is low, which indicates anemia, when they go to donate blood. Low hemoglobin may be a temporary problem remedied by eating more iron-rich foods or taking a multivitamin containing iron. However, it may also be a warning sign of blood loss in your body that may be causing you to be deficient in iron. If you're told that you can't donate blood because of low hemoglobin, make an appointment with your doctor.

Causes


Anemia occurs when your blood doesn't have enough red blood cells. This can happen if:
  • Your body doesn't make enough red blood cells
  • Bleeding causes you to lose red blood cells more quickly than they can be replaced
  • Your body destroys red blood cells

What red blood cells do

Your body makes three types of blood cells — white blood cells to fight infection, platelets to help your blood clot and red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout your body.
Red blood cells contain hemoglobin — a red, iron-rich protein that gives blood its red color. Hemoglobin enables red blood cells to carry oxygen from your lungs to all parts of your body and to carry carbon dioxide from other parts of the body to your lungs so that it can be exhaled.
Most blood cells, including red blood cells, are produced regularly in your bone marrow — a red, spongy material found within the cavities of many of your large bones. To produce hemoglobin and red blood cells, your body needs iron, vitamin B-12, folate and other nutrients from the foods you eat.

Causes of common types of anemia

Common types of anemia and their causes include:
  • Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is caused by a shortage of the element iron in your body. Your bone marrow needs iron to make hemoglobin. Without adequate iron, your body can't produce enough hemoglobin for red blood cells. This type of anemia is often caused by blood loss, such as from heavy menstrual bleeding, an ulcer, cancer, a polyp somewhere in your digestive system, and prolonged use of aspirin or drugs known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
  • Vitamin deficiency anemias. In addition to iron, your body needs folate and vitamin B-12 to produce sufficient numbers of healthy red blood cells. A diet lacking in these and other key nutrients can cause decreased red blood cell production. Additionally, some people may eat enough B-12, but their bodies aren't able to process the vitamin. This can lead to vitamin deficiency anemia.
  • Anemia of chronic disease. Certain chronic diseases — such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and other chronic inflammatory diseases — can interfere with the production of red blood cells, resulting in chronic anemia. Kidney failure also can cause anemia.
  • Aplastic anemia. This very rare life-threatening anemia is caused by a decrease in the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells. Causes of aplastic anemia include infections, drugs and autoimmune diseases.
  • Anemias associated with bone marrow disease. A variety of diseases, such as leukemia and myelodysplasia, can cause anemia by affecting blood production in your bone marrow. The effects of these types of cancer and cancer-like disorders vary from a mild alteration in blood production to a complete life-threatening shutdown of the blood-making process. Other cancers of the blood or bone marrow — such as multiple myeloma, myeloproliferative disorders and lymphoma — also can cause anemia.
  • Hemolytic anemias. This group of anemias develops when red blood cells are destroyed faster than bone marrow can replace them. Certain blood diseases can cause increased red blood cell destruction. Hemolytic anemias can be inherited, or you can develop them later in life.
  • Sickle cell anemia. This inherited and sometimes serious anemia is caused by a defective form of hemoglobin that forces red blood cells to assume an abnormal crescent (sickle) shape. These irregular-shaped red blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of red blood cells.
  • Other anemias. There are several other rarer forms of anemia, such as thalassemia and anemias caused by defective hemoglobin.

Risk factors


These factors place you at increased risk of anemia:
  • A diet lacking in certain vitamins. Choosing a diet that is consistently low in iron, vitamin B-12 and folate increases your risk of anemia.
  • Intestinal disorders. Having an intestinal disorder that affects the absorption of nutrients in your small intestine — such as Crohn's disease and celiac disease — puts you at risk for anemia. Surgical removal of or surgery to the parts of your small intestine where nutrients are absorbed can lead to nutrient deficiencies and anemia.
  • Menstruation. In general, women who haven't experienced menopause have a greater risk of iron deficiency anemia than do men and postmenopausal women. That's because menstruation causes the loss of red blood cells.
  • Pregnancy. If you're pregnant, you're at an increased risk of iron deficiency anemia because your iron stores have to serve your increased blood volume as well as be a source of hemoglobin for your growing fetus.

  • Chronic conditions. For example, if you have cancer, kidney or liver failure or another chronic condition, you may be at risk for what's called anemia of chronic disease. These conditions can lead to a shortage of red blood cells. Slow, chronic blood loss from an ulcer or other source within your body can deplete your body's store of iron, leading to iron deficiency anemia.
  • Family history. If your family has a history of an inherited anemia, such as sickle cell anemia, you also may be at increased risk for the condition.
  • Other factors. A history of certain infections, blood diseases and autoimmune disorders, alcoholism, exposure to toxic chemicals, and the use of some medications can affect red blood cell production and lead to anemia.

Complications


Left untreated, anemia can cause numerous complications, such as:
  • Severe fatigue. When anemia is severe enough, you may be so tired that you can't complete everyday tasks. You may be too exhausted to work or play.
  • Heart problems. Anemia can lead to a rapid or irregular heartbeat - an arrhythmia. Your heart must pump more blood to compensate for the lack of oxygen in the blood when you're anemic. This can even lead to congestive heart failure.
  • Death. Some inherited anemias, such as sickle cell anemia, can be serious and lead to life-threatening complications. Losing a lot of blood quickly results in acute, severe anemia and can be fatal.

Tests and diagnosis


To diagnose anemia, your doctor may recommend:
  • Physical exam. During a physical exam, your doctor may listen to your heart and your breathing. Your doctor may also place his or her hands on your abdomen to feel the size of your liver and spleen.
  • Complete blood count (CBC). A CBC is used to count the number of blood cells in a sample of your blood. For anemia, your doctor will be interested in the levels of the red blood cells contained in the blood (hematocrit) and the hemoglobin in your blood. Normal adult hematocrit values vary from one medical practice to another but are generally between 38.8 and 50 percent for men and 34.9 and 44.5 percent for women. Normal adult hemoglobin values are generally 13.5 to 17.5 grams per deciliter for men and 12 to 15.5 grams per deciliter for women.
  • A test to determine the size and shape of your red blood cells. Some of your red blood cells may also be examined for unusual size, shape and color. Doing so can help pinpoint a diagnosis. For example, in iron deficiency anemia, red blood cells are smaller and paler in color than normal. In vitamin deficiency anemias, red blood cells are enlarged and fewer in number.

Additional tests

If you receive a diagnosis of anemia, your doctor may order additional tests to determine the underlying cause. For example, iron deficiency anemia can result from chronic bleeding of ulcers, benign polyps in the colon, colon cancer, tumors or kidney failure. Your doctor may test for these and other conditions that may be causing the anemia.
Occasionally, it may be necessary to study a sample of your bone marrow to diagnose anemia.

Treatments and drugs


Anemia treatment depends on the cause.
  • Iron deficiency anemia.This form of anemia is treated with changes in your diet and iron supplements. If the underlying cause of iron deficiency is loss of blood — other than from menstruation — the source of the bleeding must be located and stopped. This may involve surgery.
  • Vitamin deficiency anemias. Folic acid and vitamin C deficiency anemias are treated with dietary supplements and increasing these nutrients in your diet. If your digestive system has trouble absorbing vitamin B-12 from the food you eat, you may receive vitamin B-12 injections.
  • Anemia of chronic disease. There's no specific treatment for this type of anemia. Doctors focus on treating the underlying disease. If symptoms become severe, a blood transfusion or injections of synthetic erythropoietin, a hormone normally produced by your kidneys, may help stimulate red blood cell production and ease fatigue.

  • Aplastic anemia. Treatment for this anemia may include blood transfusions to boost levels of red blood cells. You may need a bone marrow transplant if your bone marrow is diseased and can't make healthy blood cells.
  • Anemias associated with bone marrow disease. Treatment of these various diseases can range from simple medication to chemotherapy to bone marrow transplantation.
  • Hemolytic anemias. Managing hemolytic anemias includes avoiding suspect medications, treating related infections and taking drugs that suppress your immune system, which may be attacking your red blood cells. Short courses of treatment with steroids or immune suppressant medications can help suppress your immune system's attack on your red blood cells. Depending on the severity of your anemia, a blood transfusion or plasmapheresis may be necessary. Plasmapheresis is a type of blood-filtering procedure. In certain cases, removal of the spleen can be helpful.
  • Sickle cell anemia. Treatment for this anemia may include the administration of oxygen, pain-relieving drugs, and oral and intravenous fluids to reduce pain and prevent complications. Doctors may also recommend blood transfusions, folic acid supplements and antibiotics. A bone marrow transplant may be an effective treatment in some circumstances. A cancer drug called hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea) also is used to treat sickle cell anemia.
  • Thalassemia. This anemia may be treated with blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, removal of the spleen (splenectomy), a bone marrow transplant or a cancer drug.

Prevention


Many types of anemia can't be prevented. However, you can help avoid iron deficiency anemia and vitamin deficiency anemias by choosing a diet that includes a variety of vitamins and nutrients, including:
  • Iron. Iron-rich foods include beef and other meats, beans, lentils, iron-fortified cereals, dark green leafy vegetables, and dried fruit.
  • Folate. This nutrient, and its synthetic form folic acid, can be found in citrus fruits and juices, bananas, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes and fortified breads, cereals, and pasta.
  • Vitamin B-12. This vitamin is found naturally in meat and dairy products. It's also added to some cereals and soy products, such as soy milk.
  • Vitamin C. Foods containing vitamin C — such as citrus fruits, melons and berries — help increase iron absorption.

Consider genetic counseling if you have a family history of anemia

If you have a family history of an inherited anemia, such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia, talk to your doctor and possibly a genetic counselor about your risk and what risks you may pass on to your children.

Preparing for your appointment


Make an appointment with your family doctor or a general practitioner if you have prolonged fatigue or other signs or symptoms that worry you. If you're diagnosed with a type of anemia that requires more complex treatment, such as aplastic anemia or anemia caused by other diseases, you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in blood disorders (hematologist).
Because appointments can be brief and there's often a lot of ground to cover, it's a good idea to be well prepared. Here's some information to help you get ready and what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do


  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.
  • Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.
  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements that you're taking to show your doctor.
  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.
Your time with your doctor is limited, so preparing a list of questions can help you make the most of your appointment. List your questions from most important to least important in case time runs out. For anemia, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:
  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?
  • Are there other possible causes for my symptoms?
  • What kinds of tests do I need?
  • What caused my anemia?
  • Is my anemia likely temporary, or will I always have it?
  • What treatments are available? What are the possible side effects of each?
  • What treatment do you recommend for me?
  • I have these other health conditions. How can I best manage these conditions together?
  • Are there any dietary restrictions that I need to follow?
  • Are there foods I need to add to my diet? How often do I need to eat these foods?
  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?
In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask additional questions during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions. Being ready to answer them may reserve time to go over any points you want to spend more time on. Your doctor may ask:
  • When did you begin having these symptoms?
  • Do you have your symptoms all the time, or do they come and go?
  • How severe are your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?



Common infections may cause memory decline


Exposure to common infections is linked to memory and brain function - even if the infections never made you ill, a new research has warned.

Researchers found an index of antibody levels caused by exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 was associated with worse cognitive performance, including memory, speed of mental processing, abstract thinking, planning and reasoning ability.

"We were very interested in what were the risk factors for cognitive performance and decline," said Clinton Wright, the study's lead researcher and scientific director of the Evelyn F McKnight Brain Institute at the University of Miami.

Earlier studies have already linked certain infections to an increased risk of stroke and Alzheimer's disease.
Researchers investigated if evidence of past exposure to these infections contributed to performance on tests of memory, thinking speed and other brain functions.
The study conducted brain function tests and took blood samples from 588 people who participated in the Northern Manhattan Study. Half of the participants then took cognitive tests again in five years.
Researchers believe exposure to these infections may be associated with an increase in stroke risk, as well as an increase in atherosclerosis and inflammation, said Wright.
The study doesn't explain why the infections are related to worsening cognitive function.
"It could be caused by an immune system response to the infections or the infection itself could result in clinical damage that we're not aware of," Wright said.
"There is no evidence yet that treating these infections is beneficial," Wright said, because the initial exposure to the viruses may have happened decades earlier and the damage may be the result of a gradual process.
"It would be great if treatment prevented these bad outcomes, but we're very far away from having that type of evidence," he said.

Researchers have found that exposure to common infections is linked to memory. (Thinkstock)Researchers have found that exposure to common infections is linked to memory. (Thinkstock)
SUMMARYInfections are linked to brain function, even if these never made you ill, warns a new research.


(३)


Common infections may cause memory decline

Financial Express-22 hours agoShare
Exposure to common infections is linked to memory and brain function - even if the infections never made you ill, a new research has warned.