शनिवार, 15 फ़रवरी 2014

आरोग्य समाचार


'Indians at high risk of small dense cholesterol'


MUMBAI: Americans don't think triglycerides have a striking role in heart attacks. Their guidelines for medical management of cholesterol don't consider "small dense bad cholesterol" or "diets rich in refined carbohydrates". But the factors play a stellar role in accelerating heart attacks in Indians, said Dr Srinath Reddy, one of India's leading public health specialists.


Speaking to newspersons on Saturday, on the occasion of Asian Heart Institute, Bandra Kurla Complex, completing 2 lakh surgeries in 11 years, Dr Reddy said though genetics is blamed for Indian heart problems, there was little evidence to prove this. "Indians have low levels of good cholesterol or HDL. They have small dense LDL (bad cholesterol) which move quickly and attack and damage vessel walls,'' said Dr Reddy, founder, Public Health Federation Of India.


As there is no easy test to measure small dense LDL, doctors are veering towards a surrogate marker.

"If ratio of triglycerides and HDL in a lipid profile test is more than 3.8, then a person has small, dense LDL," he added. Indian guidelines could consider these ratios and dietary changes to cut refined carbohydrates like bread and rice.

American guidelines were revised in 2013 to prescribe moderate or high dosages of statins, a class of drugs that reduce cholesterol but now known to increase ris k of diabetes. "A low dose of statins would be better for Indians as we have a high risk for diabetes,'' said Dr Reddy.


Dr Ramakanta Panda of Asian Heart Institute, who conducted Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's second bypass in 2009,

said, "Reducing cholesterol level, through medication or lifestyle changes, will reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. Taking statins should not replace living healthily in the battle against heart disease."

However, there is very little Indian data, resulting in the dependency on western data. "It will take another five to six years for us to gather long-term data in India,'' said Dr Reddy. Till such a time, he said Indian doctors would do well to follow guidelines laid down by Britain and New Zealand.



आरोग्य समाचार /ख़बरें सेहत की भी 

News for indians at high risk of small dense cholesterol

'Indians at high risk of small dense cholesterol'

  1. Times of India ‎- 2 hours ago
    MUMBAI: Americans don't think triglycerides have a striking role in heart attacks. Their guidelines for medical management ofcholesterol don't ...




(१) पेट दर्द याददाश्त-क्षय के   जोखिम को बढ़ाता है 

STOMACH ACHES INCREASE MEMORY DECLINE RISK 

An exposure to common infections like cold sores ,mild pneumonia or stomach discomforts -even if the infections never made you ill -may increase risk of memory decline ,shows new study 

Learn How to Treat Cold SoresImage of cold sores


Cold sores — also called fever blisters — are tiny, fluid-filled lesions that occur on and around your lips. These blisters are often grouped together in patches. After the blisters break, a crust forms over the resulting sore. Cold sores usually heal within two weeks.

Cold sores spread from person to person by close personal contact, such as kissing. Cold sores are caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) closely related to the one that causes genital herpes (HSV-2). Both of these herpes simplex viruses can affect your mouth or your genitals, and can be spread via oral sex.
There's no cure for HSV infection and the blisters may recur sporadically — often in response to stress or a weakened immune system. Antiviral medications can help cold sores heal more quickly and may reduce the frequency of recurrences.

(२ ) जो महिलायें हफ्ते में तीन या इससे ज्यादा बार स्ट्रॉबरीज़ का सेवन करतीं हैं उनके लिए दिल के दौरों का खतरा ३३% कम हो जाता है। 

(३ )जै (Oats )सुपाच्य कार्बोहाइड्रेट्स और जल में घुलनशील खाद्य रेशों का एक बेहतरीन स्रोत है। पाचन रफ़्तार को कम करके यह खून में तैरती शक्कर को स्टेब्लाइज़ करती है। 

(4)समलिंगी होने का सारा ठीकरा अपने जीवन खंडों (खानदानी अंशों ,आनुवंशिक दाय ,जीवन इकाइयों ,GENES)पर मत फोड़िए :

Male sexual orientation influenced by genes, study shows


Genes examined in study are not sufficient or necessary to make men gay but do play some role in sexuality, say US researchers

Gay pride parade in Seattle
Boy Scouts at a gay pride parade in Seattle. Photograph: Elaine Thompson/AP


A study of gay men in the US has found fresh evidence that male sexual orientation is influenced by genes. Scientists tested the DNA of 400 gay men and found that genes on at least two chromosomes affected whether a man was gay or straight.

A region of the X chromosome called Xq28 had some impact on men's sexual behaviour – though scientists have no idea which of the many genes in the region are involved, nor how many lie elsewhere in the genome.
Another stretch of DNA on chromosome 8 also played a role in male sexual orientation – though again the precise mechanism is unclear.
Researchers have speculated in the past that genes linked to homosexuality in men may have survived evolution because they happened to make women who carried them more fertile. This may be the case for genes in the Xq28 region, as the X chromosome is passed down to men exclusively from their mothers.
Michael Bailey, a psychologist at Northwestern University in Illinois, set out the findings at a discussion event held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago on Thursday. "The study shows that there are genes involved in male sexual orientation," he said. The work has yet to be published, but confirms the findings of a smaller study that sparked widespread controversy in 1993, when Dean Hamer, a scientist at the US National Cancer Institute, investigated the family histories of more than 100 gay men and found homosexuality tended to be inherited. More than 10% of brothers of gay men were gay themselves, compared to around 3% of the general population. Uncles and male cousins on the mother's side had a greater than average chance of being gay, too.
The link with the mother's side of the family led Hamer to look more closely at the X chromosome. In follow-up work, he found that 33 out of 40 gay brothers inherited similar genetic markers on the Xq28 region of the X chromosome, suggesting key genes resided there.
Hamer faced a firestorm when his study was published. The fuss centred on the influences of nature and nurture on sexual orientation. But the work also raised the more dubious prospect of a prenatal test for sexual orientation. The Daily Mail headlined the story "Abortion hope after 'gay genes findings' ". Hamer warned that any attempt to develop a test for homosexuality would be "wrong, unethical and a terrible abuse of research".
The gene or genes in the Xq28 region that influence sexual orientation have a limited and variable impact. Not all of the gay men in Bailey's study inherited the same Xq28 region. The genes were neither sufficient, nor necessary, to make any of the men gay.
The flawed thinking behind a genetic test for sexual orientation is clear from studies of twins, which show that the identical twin of a gay man, who carries an exact replica of his brother's DNA, is more likely to be straight than gay. That means even a perfect genetic test that picked up every gene linked to sexual orientation would still be less effective than flipping a coin.
While genes do contribute to sexual orientation, other multiple factors play a greater role, perhaps including the levels of hormones a baby is exposed to in the womb. "Sexual orientation has nothing to do with choice," said Bailey. "We found evidence for two sets [of genes] that affect whether a man is gay or straight. But it is not completely determinative; there are certainly other environmental factors involved."

Last year, before the latest results were made public, one of Bailey's colleagues, Alan Sanders, said the findings could not and should not be used to develop a test for sexual orientation.
"When people say there's a gay gene, it's an oversimplification," Sanders said. "There's more than one gene, and genetics is not the whole story. Whatever gene contributes to sexual orientation, you can think of it as much as contributing to heterosexuality as much as you can think of it contributing to homosexuality. It contributes to a variation in the trait."
Qazi Rahman, a psychologist at King's College London, said the results were valuable for further understanding the biology of sexual orientation. "This is not controversial or surprising and is nothing people should worry about. All human psychological traits are heritable, that is, they have a genetic component," he said. "Genetic factors explain 30 to 40% of the variation between people's sexual orientation. However, we don't know where these genetic factors are located in the genome. So we need to do 'gene finding' studies, like this one by Sanders, Bailey and others, to have a better idea where potential genes for sexual orientation may lie."
Rahman rejected the idea that genetics research could be used to discriminate against people on the basis of their sexual orientation. "I don't see how genetics would contribute more to the persecution, discrimination and stigmatisation of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people any more than social, cultural or learning explanations. Historically, the persecution and awful treatment of LGBT groups has been because politicians, religious leaders and societies have viewed sexual orientation as 'choice' or due to poor upbringing."
Steven Rose, of the Open University, said: "What worries me is not the extent, if at all, to which our genetic, epigenetic or neural constitution and development affect our sexual preferences, but the huge moral panic and religious and political agenda which surrounds the question."




आरोग्य समाचार /ख़बरें सेहत की भी 

News for indians at high risk of small dense cholesterol


  1. Times of India ‎- 2 hours ago
    MUMBAI: Americans don't think triglycerides have a striking role in heart attacks. Their guidelines for medical management ofcholesterol don't ...




(१) पेट दर्द याददाश्त-क्षय के   जोखिम को बढ़ाता है 

STOMACH ACHES INCREASE MEMORY DECLINE RISK 

An exposure to common infections like cold sores ,mild pneumonia or stomach discomforts -even if the infections never made you ill -may increase risk of memory decline ,shows new study 

Learn How to Treat Cold SoresImage of cold sores


Cold sores — also called fever blisters — are tiny, fluid-filled lesions that occur on and around your lips. These blisters are often grouped together in patches. After the blisters break, a crust forms over the resulting sore. Cold sores usually heal within two weeks.


Cold sores spread from person to person by close personal contact, such as kissing. Cold sores are caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) closely related to the one that causes genital herpes (HSV-2). Both of these herpes simplex viruses can affect your mouth or your genitals, and can be spread via oral sex.
There's no cure for HSV infection and the blisters may recur sporadically — often in response to stress or a weakened immune system. Antiviral medications can help cold sores heal more quickly and may reduce the frequency of recurrences.

(२ ) जो महिलायें हफ्ते में तीन या इससे ज्यादा बार स्ट्रॉबरीज़ का सेवन करतीं हैं उनके लिए दिल के दौरों का खतरा ३३% कम हो जाता है। 

(३ )जै (Oats )सुपाच्य कार्बोहाइड्रेट्स और जल में घुलनशील खाद्य रेशों का एक बेहतरीन स्रोत है। पाचन रफ़्तार को कम करके यह खून में तैरती शक्कर को स्टेब्लाइज़ करती है। 

(4)समलिंगी होने का सारा ठीकरा अपने जीवन खंडों (खानदानी अंशों ,आनुवंशिक दाय ,जीवन इकाइयों ,GENES)पर मत फोड़िए :

Male sexual orientation influenced by genes, study shows


Genes examined in study are not sufficient or necessary to make men gay but do play some role in sexuality, say US researchers

Gay pride parade in Seattle
Boy Scouts at a gay pride parade in Seattle. Photograph: Elaine Thompson/AP


A study of gay men in the US has found fresh evidence that male sexual orientation is influenced by genes. Scientists tested the DNA of 400 gay men and found that genes on at least two chromosomes affected whether a man was gay or straight.

A region of the X chromosome called Xq28 had some impact on men's sexual behaviour – though scientists have no idea which of the many genes in the region are involved, nor how many lie elsewhere in the genome.
Another stretch of DNA on chromosome 8 also played a role in male sexual orientation – though again the precise mechanism is unclear.
Researchers have speculated in the past that genes linked to homosexuality in men may have survived evolution because they happened to make women who carried them more fertile. This may be the case for genes in the Xq28 region, as the X chromosome is passed down to men exclusively from their mothers.
Michael Bailey, a psychologist at Northwestern University in Illinois, set out the findings at a discussion event held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago on Thursday. "The study shows that there are genes involved in male sexual orientation," he said. The work has yet to be published, but confirms the findings of a smaller study that sparked widespread controversy in 1993, when Dean Hamer, a scientist at the US National Cancer Institute, investigated the family histories of more than 100 gay men and found homosexuality tended to be inherited. More than 10% of brothers of gay men were gay themselves, compared to around 3% of the general population. Uncles and male cousins on the mother's side had a greater than average chance of being gay, too.
The link with the mother's side of the family led Hamer to look more closely at the X chromosome. In follow-up work, he found that 33 out of 40 gay brothers inherited similar genetic markers on the Xq28 region of the X chromosome, suggesting key genes resided there.
Hamer faced a firestorm when his study was published. The fuss centred on the influences of nature and nurture on sexual orientation. But the work also raised the more dubious prospect of a prenatal test for sexual orientation. The Daily Mail headlined the story "Abortion hope after 'gay genes findings' ". Hamer warned that any attempt to develop a test for homosexuality would be "wrong, unethical and a terrible abuse of research".
The gene or genes in the Xq28 region that influence sexual orientation have a limited and variable impact. Not all of the gay men in Bailey's study inherited the same Xq28 region. The genes were neither sufficient, nor necessary, to make any of the men gay.
The flawed thinking behind a genetic test for sexual orientation is clear from studies of twins, which show that the identical twin of a gay man, who carries an exact replica of his brother's DNA, is more likely to be straight than gay. That means even a perfect genetic test that picked up every gene linked to sexual orientation would still be less effective than flipping a coin.
While genes do contribute to sexual orientation, other multiple factors play a greater role, perhaps including the levels of hormones a baby is exposed to in the womb. "Sexual orientation has nothing to do with choice," said Bailey. "We found evidence for two sets [of genes] that affect whether a man is gay or straight. But it is not completely determinative; there are certainly other environmental factors involved."

Last year, before the latest results were made public, one of Bailey's colleagues, Alan Sanders, said the findings could not and should not be used to develop a test for sexual orientation.
"When people say there's a gay gene, it's an oversimplification," Sanders said. "There's more than one gene, and genetics is not the whole story. Whatever gene contributes to sexual orientation, you can think of it as much as contributing to heterosexuality as much as you can think of it contributing to homosexuality. It contributes to a variation in the trait."
Qazi Rahman, a psychologist at King's College London, said the results were valuable for further understanding the biology of sexual orientation. "This is not controversial or surprising and is nothing people should worry about. All human psychological traits are heritable, that is, they have a genetic component," he said. "Genetic factors explain 30 to 40% of the variation between people's sexual orientation. However, we don't know where these genetic factors are located in the genome. So we need to do 'gene finding' studies, like this one by Sanders, Bailey and others, to have a better idea where potential genes for sexual orientation may lie."
Rahman rejected the idea that genetics research could be used to discriminate against people on the basis of their sexual orientation. "I don't see how genetics would contribute more to the persecution, discrimination and stigmatisation of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people any more than social, cultural or learning explanations. Historically, the persecution and awful treatment of LGBT groups has been because politicians, religious leaders and societies have viewed sexual orientation as 'choice' or due to poor upbringing."
Steven Rose, of the Open University, said: "What worries me is not the extent, if at all, to which our genetic, epigenetic or neural constitution and development affect our sexual preferences, but the huge moral panic and religious and political agenda which surrounds the question."

8 टिप्‍पणियां:

प्रवीण पाण्डेय ने कहा…

पेट खराब होते ही सरदर्द प्रारम्भ हो जाता है, दोनों में संबंध तो है ही।

Virendra Kumar Sharma ने कहा…

Gastroenteritis - Upset Stomach

Symptoms
nausea or vomiting
loose or liquid stools
increased number of stools
headache or body aches
chills, with or without fever
cramping abdominal pain
Treatment
Most people with gastroenteritis can successfully treat their symptoms at home. Treatment is aimed at fluid replacement and dietary management. Antibiotics only help if the cause is bacteria, not a virus.
During the first 24 to 36 hours of illness, the best treatment is a diet of clear liquids only. Avoid solid food, alcohol, and caffeine during this period. Frequent, small amounts of clear liquids are best and should add up to at least two to three liters per day. If vomiting occurs, wait one to two hours after vomiting and try a few sips of water or ice chips. If these are tolerated, progress to other clear liquids, such as:
clear water
sports drinks
clear, non-caffeinated sodas such as 7-Up, Sprite, or ginger ale
powdered fruit-flavored drinks (e.g., Kool-Aid)
diluted juices (apple, grape, cherry, or cranberry; avoid citrus juices like orange or lemon)
clear broth or bouillon
decaffeinated tea
popsicles
gelatin diluted with water
Medications
Acetominophen (650 mg) may be taken every 4 hours to control fever, headaches, and body aches. Aspirin and ibuprofen can cause stomach irritation and should be avoided.
Bismuth subsalicylate (e.g., Pepto-Bismol, 30 to 60 ml or 2 tablespoons) may be taken every 30 minutes, for a total of 8 doses, to control diarrhea. Possible side effects include black stool or tongue, nausea, or constipation. Do not take bismuth subsalicylate if you are taking aspirin, other subsalicylates, doxycycline, anticoagulants, probenecid, or methotrexate.
Loperamide hydrochloride (e.g., Imodium A-D, 2 caplets or 4 teaspoons) slows intestinal movement and may be taken after the first loose bowel movement. Take 1 caplet or 2 teaspoons for each bowel movement after the first. Do not exceed 4 caplets or 8 teaspoons in a 24-hour period.

Virendra Kumar Sharma ने कहा…

Food
After nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea have been controlled with a clear liquid diet for 24 to 36 hours, start to add bland solids while continuing fluid intake. Some bland foods include:
toasted white bread with only honey or clear jelly
soda crackers
white rice (no butter)
Cream of Wheat or rice cereal (no milk)
applesauce or bananas
boiled potatoes
baked or broiled fish or poultry without skin or fat
cultured dairy products (e.g., yogurt, cottage cheese, buttermilk)
Gradually resume a usual diet after 24 to 48 hours of eating bland solids if symptoms improve. It may take several days before the bowels function normally.
Foods to avoid
Gastroenteritis causes an inflammation of the digestive tract. Avoid foods that may be irritating or could worsen inflammation, such as:
non-cultured dairy products (milk, cheese, ice cream)
spicy foods
greasy or fatty foods (e.g., cream soups, beef, pork)
alcohol or caffeine
foods containing roughage (whole grains, seeds and nuts, fruits with skins, raw vegetables)

Virendra Kumar Sharma ने कहा…

Prevention
Wash hands well with soap and water after using the bathroom and before eating or handling food.
Do not share eating or drinking utensils.
Avoid milk, meat, or egg-based foods that have not been refrigerated.
After preparing uncooked meat and poultry, thoroughly clean all utensils and work surfaces before using them with other foods.
When traveling in foreign countries, drink only bottled water or bottled drinks and eat only fruits and vegetables that can be peeled or that have been thoroughly cooked. Avoid sidewalk food stands.
When to consult a clinician
Contact a clinician if any of the following are experienced:
persistent abdominal pain, unrelieved by vomiting or passing a bowel movement
fever over 101°F, not relieved with acetaminophen
vomiting or diarrhea for more than 24 hours without improvement or more than three times an hour
blood in vomit or stools
no urination for more than eight hours

Virendra Kumar Sharma ने कहा…

http://www.uhs.wisc.edu/health-topics/digestive-system/upset-stomach.shtml

Aditi Poonam ने कहा…

इस ज्ञानवर्धक पोस्ट के लिए धन्यवाद ....

Aditi Poonam ने कहा…

इस ज्ञानवर्धक पोस्ट के लिए धन्यवाद ....

Aditi Poonam ने कहा…

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