बुधवार, 26 जून 2013

WHAT IS CATARACT?

WHAT IS CATARACT?  (I PART)

Cataract is the clouding of the lens of your eye that impairs vision .Cataract is responsible for more than half of blindness in the world ,which is a grim fact because it is a treatable condition.

WHAT CAUSES CATARACT ?

Advancing age is a primary reason for cataract .With age ,protein of the lens turns opaque .In the initial stage ,the lens bends light rays irregularly which requires prescription glasses of higher number to correct it.

other causes of cataract are metabolic disorders ,excessive exposure to sunlight ,life style disorders like heavy alcohol consumption and smoking .Injury to the eye can also lead to clouding of the lens of the eye .

Metabolic disorders



Metabolism is the process your body uses to get or make 

energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, 
carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system
 break the food parts down into sugars and acids, your 
body's fuel. Your body can use this fuel right away, or it can 
store the energy in your body tissues, such as your liver, 
muscles, and body fat.
A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical 
reactions in your body disrupt this process. When this 
happens, you might have too much of some substances or
 too little of other ones that you need to stay healthy.
You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, 
such as your liver or pancreas, become diseased or do not 
function normally. Diabetes is an example.


WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF CATARACT ?

Cataract can make simple day to day living difficult .The symptoms are :

(1)The vision becomes cloudy ,blurry or foggy .

(2)Progressive nearsightedness in older people .

Nearsightedness, or myopia, as it is medically termed, is a 

vision condition in which close objects are seen clearly, but 

objects farther away appear blurred.

(3)Changes in the way you see colour because the lens acts as a filter .

(4 )Problems driving at night such as glare from oncoming headlights .

(5 )Double vision (like a suprimposed image).

(6 )Sudden changes in glasses prescription.

How Cataract Is Treated ?

When cataract is formed ,surgery is the only way to treat it .In cataract surgery ,the surgeon removes the clouded lens and puts an Intra Ocular Lens (IOL) in your eyes .Your vision will be as good as pre -cataract surgery ,though you may need to wear glasses .Over the years ,cataract surgery has moved from vision restoration to refractive surgery ,so that you may have reduced need of glasses.

  1. Images for pictures related to normal and cataract vision

       - Report images
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Surgical Techniques

Micro  Incision Cataract Surgery

Over the years the size of corneal incision made during cataract surgery has considerably reduced leading  to improved visual outcome & quicker post procedure recovery for the patient .

(1)Requires a very small incision of about 2mm.  

(2)Cataract is emulsified into small pieces by Phaco and a foldable IOL is implanted.

  Phacoemulsification cataract surgery is a procedure in 

which an ultrasonic device is used to break up and then 

remove a cloudy lens, or cataract, from the eye to improve 

vision. The insertion of an intraocular lens (IOL) usually 

immediately follows phacoemulsification.

(3)Walk -in ,Walk -0ut procedure .

(4)Stitchless ,bloodless ,painless surgery .

(5)Heals very quickly.

Small Incision Ctaract Surgery (SICS)

(1)Requires a smaller incision of   about 2 mm.

(2)Cataract is removed manually and foldable intraocular 

lens 

(IOL) is implanted .

(3)No stitches .

(4)Heals fast.

CONVENTIONAL   CATARACT SURGERY OR EXTRA CAPSULAR CATARACT EXTRACTION (ECCE)

(1)Requres an incision of 10 -12 mm.

(2)The cloudy eye lens is removed in one piece .

(3)A hard plastic lens is implanted .

(4 )Multiple stitches are required .

(5 )Final glass prescription could take 6-10 weeks.

Conventional surgery 

10 -12 mm .incision (Multiple Stitches)

Phacoemulsification 

3mm.incision (Stitchless).


WHEN TO GO FOR CATARACT SURGERY?


The moment cataract begins to disrupt your lifestyle , get it 

removed .Do not wait for the cataract to mature , as it leads to more 

difficult surgery and impairs your vision.

What Is An Intra Ocular Lens ?

Intra ocular lenses or IOL are the artificial lenses that replace /substitute the natural lens ,which is removed during cataract surgery .Thick glasses after cataract surgery were a common thing in the days before the use of these IOLs .IOLs gave independence from thick glasses of the operated patients .

Recommended treatment For The Cataract 

The recommended treatment for the cataract is Phacoemulsification    

with implantation .Phacoemulsification has helped to reduce the standard 1 2 mm incision to a less than 2mm self -sealing incision with no sutures or bandages .The location of this incision can further be planned to reduce astigmatism and enhance your vision to minimize the dependence on glasses.

Astigmatism:

What Is Astigmatism?

Astigmatism is a common eye condition that's easily corrected by eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery.

Astigmatism is caused by an eye that is not completely round. This is one type of refractive error. Astigmatism occurs in nearly everybody to some degree. For vision problems due to astigmatism, glasses, contact lenses, and even vision correction procedures are all possible treatment options.

Astigmatism is caused by an eye that is not completely round. This is one type of refractive error. Astigmatism occurs in nearly everybody to some degree. For vision problems due to astigmatism, glasses, contact lenses, and even vision correction procedures are all possible treatment options.

What Causes Astigmatism?

Astigmatism is a natural and commonly occurring cause of blurred or distorted vision. The exact cause in not known.

How Soon After The Phaco  Surgery 


,Will I Be Able To See?

In some cases ,the patient is able to see almost immediately 

following the surgery .Although ,most patients experience 

clear vision after one or two days.

Will I Need Glasses After Phaco Surgery ?

You may need to wear glasses .If unifocal IOL is used during 

surgery ,near vision glasses are generally required.




What is Unifocal IOL

Unifocal IOLs are designed to provide good distance vision.For near vision he/she has to wear glasses. These lenses can be used most for all patients.

What is Multifocal IOL

The latest multifocal IOLs are designed to provide good distance vision, intermediate and near vision. They reduce the patient’s dependence on glasses for routine activities. Unlike conventional IOL it has multiple zones of different focal lengths that bring everything from near to far into clear focus. These lenses can be used only for suitable patients.

Will Activities Have To Be Restricted After 

Phaco Surgery ?

Normal activities including walking ,reading 

,writing&watching television may be resumed 

soon after the surgery.However ,during the 

first week after the surgery it is better to avoid 

strenuous activities .Driving can be resumed 

depending upon the visual recovery of the 

patient.There are no diet restrictions at all .

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Astigmatism2




Can A Cataract Grow Back ?

No .Blurred vision after months or years of cataract surgery results from clouding of the thin capsular bag membrane that helps keep the lens implant in place.To restore clear vision ,surgeons use a laser to open a visual path through the cloudy membrane .This can be easily removed by laser treatment as a simple outdoor procedure.

When To Plan Cataract Surgery Of The Other Eye  ?

Usually both eye surgeries are not done together .If the recovery of first eye is good ,the second eye can be operated even on the next day .It's as per the comfort of the patient and the doctor.

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Cataract Surgery Pictures Videos

Cataract Surgery
Real time cataract surgery using state of the art techniques as of Jan 2009
Cataract surgery
Cataract surgery
Modern Cataract Surgery
This is an example of small-incision cataract 

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